History of the Day for:
- 30 B.C.: Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, committed suicide by letting a poisonous snake bite her breast.
- 1146: European leaders outlawed the crossbow with the intent of ending war for all time.
- 1645: The Dutch and American Indians signed a peace treaty at New Amsterdam (later called New York).
- 1682: William Penn left England to sail to the New World.
- 1781: A French fleet of 24 ships under the Comte de Grasse defeated the British under Admiral Graves at the battle of Chesapeake Capes in the Revolutionary War.
- 1862: The second battle of Bull Run took place in the U.S. Civil War. Confederate forces under Gen. Stonewall Jackson defeated the Union army.
- 1884: Jack Dempsey won the middleweight title in the first fight with boxing gloves.
- 1906: Actress Joan Blondell was born in New York City. She appeared in more than 100 movies.
- 1908: Actor Fred MacMurray ("My Three Sons") was born in Kankakee, Ill.
- 1914: The Battle of Tannenberg, one of history's great military disasters, ended after the Russian Second Army under Samsonov was enveloped and crushed by the Germans, losing 30,000 men. Samsonov committed suicide.
- 1918: Lenin, new leader of Soviet Russia, was shot and wounded after speaking at the Michelson factory in Moscow.
- 1941: The siege of Leningrad began when Nazi forces cut off the last rail link between Leningrad and the rest of the Soviet Union.
- 1945: Hong Kong was liberated when the British navy under Rear-Admiral Cecil Harcourt sailed into Victoria harbor to accept the Japanese surrender.
- 1961: J.B. Parsons became the first African American judge of a U.S. District Court.
- 1963: A "hot line" link between the Kremlin and the White House went into operation, designed to reduce the risk of accidental war.
- 1967: Thurgood Marshall was confirmed as the first African American justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
- 1983: Lt. Col. Guion Bluford became the first African American in space, one of a crew of five on the space shuttle Challenger.
- 1984: STS-41-D: The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off on its maiden voyage.