History of the Day for:
- 1568: The Dean of St. Paul's Cathedral developed bottled beer.
- 1643: English parliamentarians were defeated by the Royalists under Prince Maurice at the battle of Roundway Down in the English Civil War.
- 1787: Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance authorizing the Northwest Territory to become states.
- 1793: Charlotte Corday murdered French revolutionary Jean Paul Marat in his bath. She was guillotined four days later.
- 1832: Henry Schoolcraft discovered the source of the Mississippi River.
- 1835: John Ruggles received U.S. patent No. 1 for a traction wheel used in locomotive steam engines.
- 1837: Queen Victoria became the first British monarch to live in the present Buckingham Palace.
- 1863: In New York City rioting against the Civil War military draft flared.
- 1881: Billy the Kid was shot and killed in Mexico.
- 1917: A vision of the Virgin Mary appeared to children in Fatima, Portugal.
- 1930: The first-ever soccer World Cup competition began in Uruguay.
- 1939: Frank Sinatra made his recording debut.
- 1943: The greatest tank battle in history ended with Russia's defeat of Germany at Kursk. Almost 6,000 tanks took part, 2,900 were lost by Germany and there were at least 230,000 casualties in the battle.
- 1985: The "Live Aid" concert raised over $70 million for African famine relief.
- 1985: United States Vice President George H.W. Bush became the Acting President for the day when President Ronald Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon.